With a history of over 1500 years, the Buddhist Grottoes in China are in danger of deterioration due to erosion of dust, salt crystallization, wind, rain, water, SO2, insects, and rock fatigue, etc. The following articles include researches on the causes of deterioration and possible solutions to preserve the grottoes.
Guo, Q., Wang, X., Zhang, H., Li, Z., & Yang, S. (2009). Damage and conservation of the high cliff on the Northern area of Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, China. Landslides, 6(2), 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-009-0152-9
Ji, A. H., Wang, W. F., Yan, J. F., & Wu, F. S. (2013). Locomotive and Adhesive Behavior of Apopestes spectrum on Murals in Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 461, 235–240. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.461.235
Liu, R. Z., Zhang, B. J., Zhang, H., & Shi, M. F. (2011). Deterioration of Yungang Grottoes: Diagnosis and research. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 12(4), 494–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2011.03.008
ZHANG, C.Y.(2002). The analysis of rock mass fatigue effect under vibration environment in Luoyang Longmen Grottoes[J];Acta Scicentiarum Naturalum Universitis Pekinesis. 2002.06
Zhang, H., Shi, M., Shen, W., Li, Z., Zhang, B., Liu, R., & Zhang, R. (2013). Damage or protection? The role of smoked crust on sandstones from Yungang Grottoes. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(2), 935–942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.09.031